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常见的氧化铜选矿方法

[作者:aoutmy] [日期:17-09-04]
一、 浮选法 Flotation process 1.硫化浮选法 1. sulphide flotation 这是处理孔雀石和兰铜矿这类氧化铜矿石的一种最简单,最普遍的方法。硅孔雀石和赤铜矿的硫化比较困难,因此当矿石中氧化铜矿物主要为孔雀石和兰铜矿时,可采用硫化浮选法。 This is one of the simplest and most common methods for treating copper oxide ores such as malachite and copper. The sulfide of malachite and red copper is difficult to be cured. Therefore, when the copper oxide minerals are mainly malachite and copper ore, sulfide flotation can be adopted. 硫化时硫化钠用量可达1~2kg/t。由于硫化生成的薄膜不稳固,经强烈搅拌容易脱落,而且硫化钠本身易于氧化,所以在使用硫化钠时应分批加入。另外,孔雀石和兰铜矿的硫化速度较快,故在实践中进行硫化时常不需要预先搅拌,而将硫化剂直接加入浮选第一槽,根据泡沫状态调整硫化剂用量。使第一槽出现明显的抑制现象,而在第二槽呈现良好的矿化泡沫。矿泥中含泥较多时须加分散剂,一般用水玻璃。 When sulfide is used, the dosage of sodium sulfide can reach 1 ~ 2kg/t. Because the sulfide film is not stable, it is easy to fall off after stirring, and the sodium sulfide itself is easy to oxidize, so it should be added in batches when using sodium sulfide. In addition, the sulfidation rate of malachite and copper ore is faster, so it is not necessary to stir in advance in practice, but the vulcanizing agent is added directly into the first flotation tank, and the dosage of vulcanizing agent is adjusted according to the foam state. The first groove shows obvious inhibition, while the second groove presents a good mineralized foam. More must be added dispersant containing mud mud, water glass. 捕收剂一般用丁基黄药,或丁基黄药与黑药混合应用,浮选矿浆的PH值通常保持在9左右。若硫化钠用量较少,不足以保持PH值时,在磨矿作业可加些石灰。硫化时加入适量硫酸铵、硫酸铝或硫酸等有助于矿物的硫化,改善浮选指标。 Collectors usually use butyl xanthate or butyl xanthate mixed with black drugs, and the pH value of flotation pulp is usually maintained at about 9. If the amount of sodium sulfide is small enough to maintain the pH value, add some lime to the grinding operation. Adding proper amount of ammonium sulfate, aluminium sulfate or sulfuric acid in vulcanization will help to cure the minerals and improve the flotation indexes. 2.脂肪酸浮选法 2. fatty acid flotation 脂肪酸及其皂类捕收剂能很好地浮选孔雀石及兰铜矿。当脉石矿物非碳酸盐类的氧化铜矿石可以考虑采用此法。当矿石中含有碳酸盐矿物或含有可被浮选的铁、锰氧化矿物时,此浮选法将失去选择性。 The fatty acid and its soap collectors can be used for flotation of malachite and copper ore. This method may be considered when gangue minerals, non carbonate oxide copper ores, are considered. The flotation process will lose selectivity when the ore contains carbonate minerals or contains iron and manganese oxide minerals that can be floated. 国外有混合应用硫化法与脂肪酸法的实践。先用硫化钠及黄药浮起硫化铜及一部分氧化铜,以后再用脂肪酸浮选残余氧化铜。例如,赞比亚的恩昌加选厂,处理的矿石含铜4.7%,加入石灰500g/t(PH为9~9.5),甲酚(起泡剂)为10g/t,乙黄药60g/t,戊黄药35g/t,硫化钠1kg/t,棕榈酸40g/t,燃料油75g/t,浮选精矿含铜达50%~55%。 Practice of mixed application of sulfuration and fatty acid in foreign countries. First, sodium sulfide and xanthate are used to float copper sulfide and part of copper oxide, and then residual fatty acid is used for flotation of residual copper oxide. For example, Zambia's Chang Jiaxuan factory, processing of copper ore 4.7%, lime 500g/t (PH = 9 ~ 9.5), cresol (10g/t foaming agent), ethyl xanthate amyl xanthate, 60g/t, 35g/t, 1kg/t 40g/t, palmitic acid, sodium sulfide, fuel oil 75g/t, flotation concentrate containing copper was 50% ~ 55%. 二、 化学选矿法 Two. Chemical dressing method 3.酸浸—沉淀—浮选法 3. acid precipitation precipitation flotation method 矿石磨细后先用0.5%~3%的硫酸稀溶液浸出,(对于某些较难浸出的矿石,浸出时需加温到45~70℃),铜的氧化矿物便溶解生成硫酸铜,然后用铁屑置换,使铜离子还原为金属铜沉淀析出。 Ore grinding after the first 0.5% ~ 3% dilute sulfuric acid solution leaching, (for some difficult ore leaching, leaching when heated to 45 to 70 DEG C), copper oxide minerals will dissolve copper sulfate, and then use the iron replacement, the copper ion reduction to metallic copper precipitation. CuCO3•Cu(OH)2+2H2SO4=2CuSO4+CO2+H2O CuCO3 • Cu (OH) 2+2H2SO4=2CuSO4+CO2+H2O CuSiO3•nH2O+H2SO4=CuSO4+H2SiO3+nH2O CuSO4+Fe=FeSO4+Cu↓ CuSiO3 - nH2O+H2SO4=CuSO4+H2SiO3+nH2O: CuSO4+Fe=FeSO4+Cu 最后将金属铜及不溶解于硫酸的硫化铜矿物一起浮起得到铜精矿。此法在实践中已得到应用。但是,当矿石中含大量碱性脉石时,酸的耗量太大,成本太高,此法就不适用。实践中还可用考虑采用氨浸法或浮选—水冶法。 Finally, metal copper and copper sulfide minerals which do not dissolve in sulfuric acid are floated together to obtain copper concentrates. This method has been applied in practice. However, when the ore contains a large number of alkaline gangue, the consumption of acid is too large and the cost is too high, this method is not applicable. The practice can also consider the use of ammonia leaching or flotation hydrometallurgical method.

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