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硫酸铜质量优劣的鉴别方法

 [作者:aoutmy] [日期:17-08-12]
硫酸铜俗称“蓝矾”,是果业生产中的常用农药。近年来由于药源不足,市场上出现了一些质量低劣的产品,这些产品常含有大量硫酸亚铁等有害杂质,使用后往往给果树生产带来危害。因此,使用时最好能进行检测。其简易的鉴别方法如下:   1.外观鉴别。  用多点取样法,采集硫酸铜样品,观察其晶体颜色。纯硫酸铜为三斜晶系结晶,其晶块应呈蓝色,若含钠、镁等杂质,其晶块的颜色随杂质含量的增加而逐渐变淡。如果含铁,其结晶颜色常为蓝绿、黄绿或者淡绿,色泽不等。观察时可用质量较好的硫酸铜作参照。  2.化学鉴别。  ①取预先研细的待测样品和纯品硫酸铜各1克左右(花生米大小),分别放入两只水杯中,加洁净水100毫升,摇动几分钟,使晶块完全溶解为止。  ②量取上述混浊液各5毫升左右,分别置于两只玻璃杯中,均加入碳酸氢铵约0.5克,摇动1~2分钟,使其充分反应,显色,放置10分钟后,进行观察比较。若两种溶液的颜色相同,不产生沉淀和沉淀物很少,则证明样品质量合格;若待测样品溶液的蓝色比纯品明显淡时,说明其有效成分含量较低,可能含有部分钠、镁、钾等杂质;若样品中出现大量沉淀,则表明样品中含有较多的铁、铝、锌或钙等杂质,沉淀越多,其有效成分越低。 Copper sulfate, commonly known as "alum", is a common pesticide in fruit production. In recent years, due to the shortage of pharmaceutical resources, there have been some inferior products in the market. These products often contain a lot of harmful impurities such as ferrous sulfate, which are often harmful to fruit tree production. Therefore, it is best to detect when used. The simple identification method is as follows: 1. Appearance identification. Samples of copper sulfate were collected by means of multipoint sampling, and the crystal color was observed. Pure copper sulfate is the crystal of triclinic crystal, and its crystalline block should be blue. If it contains sodium, magnesium and other impurities, the color of its crystal will gradually fade with the increase of impurity content. If iron is contained, its crystalline color is often blue and green, yellowish green or light green, with different color. The quality of copper sulfate can be used for reference. 2. Chemical identification. 1) take the porphyrization under test sample in advance and refinement 1 grams (peanut size), copper sulfate, respectively in the two cups, with clean water, 100 ml, shake a few minutes, make the crystal block until completely dissolved. (2) measuring the turbid liquid 5 ml each, were put in two glasses, add ammonium bicarbonate about 0.5 grams, shake 1 ~ 2 minutes, make its full reaction, color, placement after 10 minutes, to observe. If the color of the two solutions is the same, no precipitation or sediment is produced. If the blue of the sample solution is significantly lighter than the pure product, it indicates that the effective component content is low and may contain some impurities such as sodium, magnesium and potassium. If there is a large amount of precipitation in the sample, it is indicated that there are more iron, aluminum, zinc or calcium in the sample, and the more precipitation, the lower the effective component.

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